Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 58-69
A Systematic Review of Program Quality in the Field of Positive Youth Development
Jeantyl Norze, Biotechnology & Natural Resources, College of Agriculture, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Las Vegas, USA
Melissa Cater, Department of Agricultural, Extension Education, & Evaluation, College of Agriculture, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA
Received: Apr. 27, 2020;       Accepted: May 26, 2020;       Published: Jun. 16, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ash.20200602.12      View  248      Downloads  110
The purpose of the study was to examine areas of competency for quality programming in the field of youth development. Program Quality is one of the new foci of evaluation capacity building (ECB) efforts that has not been clearly defined in the literature. For the purpose of this study, the researchers operationally defined program quality as the program characteristics, indicators, and implementation practice that stakeholders including researchers mutually agree upon. These program quality components are interlinked. It is critical to help youth practitioners think through the logical connection among the components of program quality. This can be partly achieved through professional development, which equips practitioners with competencies necessary to perform their tasks. Implementation of quality is associated with program staff’s ability to influence program structure and process. Staff expertise is not defined by only their knowledge and skills but also their ability to respond to challenges and problems they face daily at work. Through a systematic literature review, the authors identified key areas where program quality in the field of youth development can be effectively impacted by staff training activities; these areas then served as the components of a proposed staff training model. The latter consists of four components: child/youth development, social ecological theory, program management, and program theory. These components were found to be critical for quality programming.
Program Evaluation, Staff Training Model, Positive Youth Development (PYD), Program Implementation, Program Theory, Program Quality
To cite this article
Jeantyl Norze, Melissa Cater, A Systematic Review of Program Quality in the Field of Positive Youth Development, Advances in Sciences and Humanities. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 58-69. doi: 10.11648/j.ash.20200602.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Arnold, M. E. (2015). Connecting the dots: Improving Extension program planning with program umbrella models. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 3 (2), 48-67.
Workman, J. D., & Scheer, S. D. (2012). Evidence of impact: Examination of evaluation studies published in the Journal of Extension [Online]. Journal of Extension, 50 (2), Article 2FEA1. Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/2012april/pdf/JOE_v50_2a1.pdf.
Smith, C., Akiva, T., Sugar, S., Lo, Y. J., Frank, K. A., Peck, S. C., Cortina, K. S., & Devaney, T. (2012). Continuous quality improvement in afterschool settings: Impact findings from the Youth Program Quality Intervention study. Washington, DC: The Forum For Youth Investment. Retrieved from Http://www.cypq.org/content/continous-quality-improvement-afterschool-settings-impact-findingss-youth-program-quality-in.
Evans, D. (1996). A stakeholder analysis of developments at the primary and secondary care interface. British Journal of General Practice, 46 (412), 675-7.
Norze, J. (2018). "Building Program Quality in Youth Development Staff Training: Critical Components as Perceived by Currently Employed Youth Development Professionals in the United States". LSU Doctoral Dissertations. 4634. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_dissertations/4634.
Skaff, M. M., Chesla, C. A., Mycue, V. D., & Fisher, L. (2002). Lessons in cultural competence: Adapting research methodology for Latino participants. Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 305–323.
Pierce, K. M.; Bolt, D. M.; &Vandell, D. L. (2010). Specific features of after-school program quality: Associations with Children’s Functioning in Middle Childhood. Am J Community Psychol, 45, 381–393.
Riggs, N. R, Bohnert, A. M., Guzman, M. D., & Davidson, D. (2010). Examining the potential of community-based after-school programs for Latino youth. American Journal of Community Psychology.
Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., et al. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on adolescents’ experiences in schools and families. American Psychologist, 48, 90–101.
Hirsch, B. J., Mekinda, M. A. and Stawicki, J. A. (2010, March). More than attendance: The importance of after-school program quality. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45 (3-4), 447–452.
Meyers, J., & Kyle, J. E. (1996). Critical needs, critical choices: A survey on children and families in America's cities. A Research Report of the National League of Cities. Washington, DC: National League of Cities.
Woodhead, M. (1996) In Search of the Rainbow: Pathways to Quality in Large-Scale Programmes for Young Disadvantaged Children. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Foundation.
Larson, R. W., & Walker, K. C. (2010). Dilemmas of practice: Challenges to program quality encountered by youth program leaders. Am J Community Psychol, 45, 338–349.
Pozzoboni, K. M., & Kirshner, B. (Eds.) (2016). The changing landscape of youth work: Theory and practice for an evolving field. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.
Cross, A. B., Gottfredson, D. C., Wilson, D. M., Rorie, M., & Connell, N. (2010). Implementation quality and positive experiences in after-school programs. American Journal of Community Psychology.
Cooper, A. W., & Graham, D. L. (2001). Competencies needed to be successful county agents and county supervisors. Journal of Extension [On-line], 39 (1). Retrieved from: http://www.joe.org/joe/2001february/rb3.html.
Baldwin, C., & Wilder, Q. (2014). Inside quality: Examination of quality improvement processes in afterschool youth programs. Child and Youth Services, 35, 152–168. doi: 10.1080/0145935X.2014.924346.
Jucious, M. J. (1963). Personnel management (5th ed.). Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
DeSario, J. P., Faerman, S. R., and Slack, J. D. (1994). Local Government Information and Training Needs in the 21st Centugy. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Halim, A. and Ali, Md. M. (2005) Training and professional development. Daya Publishing House, (Ed.): Improving agricultural extension. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/W5830E/w5830e0h.htm#TopOfPage.
Olaniyan, D. A. & Ojo. L. B. (2008). Staff Training and development: A Vital tool for organisational effectiveness. European Journal of Scientific Research, 24 (3), 326-331. ISSN 1450-216X.
Oribabor, P. E. (2000), “Human Resources management, a strategic approval." Human Resources Management 9 (4), 21–24.
Isyaku, I. A. (2000) Training and retraining of Teachers through Distance Education. Being a paper presented at the National Workshop on Distance Education Held at Abuja Nigeria. 27-29.
Orokov, B., Durning, D., pushkarev, S. (2006). Employee training and development in kyrgyzstan: leninskoye village government.
Miller, B. (2005). Pathways to success for youth: What counts in after-school. Massachusetts afterschool research study. Boston, Mass.: United Way of Massachusetts Bay.
Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blasé, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231). Retrieved from http://nirn.fmhi.usf.edu/resources/publications/Monograph/pdf/monograph_full.pdf.
Huebner, A. J., Walker, J. A., & McFarland, M. (2003). Staff development for the youth development professional: A critical framework for understanding the work. Youth & Society, 35 (2), 204-225.
Hall, G., Yohalem, N., Tolman, J., & Wilson, A. (2003). How after-school programs can most effectively promote positive youth development as a support to academic achievement. Wellesley, MA7 National Institute on Out-of-School Time, Wellesley Centers for Women.
Weissberg, R. P., & O’Brien, M. U. (2004). What Works in School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Programs for Positive Youth Development. AAPSS, 591.
Bowie, L., & Bronte-Tinkew, J. (2006, December). The importance of professional development for youth workers. Child Trends. Publication 2006-17.
Dall’Alba, G., & Sandberg, J. (2006). Unveiling professional development: A critical review of stage models. Review of Educational Research, 76, 383–412.
Weiss, H. B., Kreider, H., Lopez, M. E., & Chatman, C. M. (Eds.). (2005). Preparing educators to involve families: From theory to practice. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
Imam, U. F. (1999). Youth workers as mediators and interpreters: Ethical issues in work with black young people. In S. Banks (Ed.), Ethical issues in youth work (pp. 125–144). London, England: Rutledge.
Schwandt, T. A. (2003). Back to the rough ground: Beyond theory to practice in evaluation. Evaluation, 9, 353–364.
Donavant, B. (2009). The new, modern practice of adult education: Online instruction in a continuing professional education setting. Adult Education Quarterly, 59 (3), 227-245.
Gallucci, C., Van Lare, M. D., Yoon, I. H., & Boatright, B. (2010). Instructional Coaching: Building Theory About the Role and Organizational Support for Professional Learning. American Educational Research Journal, 47 (4), 919-963.
Kasworm, C., Rose, A., & Ross-Gordon, J. (2010). Handbook of adult and continuing education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Seevers, B., Conklin, N. & Graham, D. (2007). Education through Cooperative Extension (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.
Collins, M. E., Hill, N., Miranda, C. (2008). Establishing positive youth development Approaches in Group Home Settings: Training Implementation and Evaluation. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 25 (1), 43-54.
Yohalem N., & Wilson-Ahlstrom, A. (2010). Inside the black box: Assessing and improving quality in youth programs. American Journal of Community Psychology; 45, 350–357. [PubMed: 20300822].
Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. A. (Eds). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Rhodes, J. (2004). The critical ingredient: Caring youth-staff relationships in after-school settings. In G. G. Noam (Ed.), After-school worlds: Creating a new social space for development and learning (New Directions for Youth Development, 101, 145-161. New York: Wiley.
Durlak, J. A. (2013). The Importance of Quality Implementation for Research, Practice, and Policy. ASPE Research Brief. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED541356.pdf.
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Committee on Community Level Programs for Youth. Jacquelynne Eccles and Jennifer A. Gootman, eds. Board on Children, Youth and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social-Sciences and Education. Washington D. C: National Academies Press.
Scott, S. (2010). National dissemination of effective parenting programs to improve child outcomes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 1–3.
Lerner, R. M., & Benson, P. I. (2003). Developmental assets and asset-building communities: Implications for research, policy, and practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
Pittman, K., & Irby, M. (1996). Preventing Problems or Promoting Development: Competing Priorities or Inseparable Goals? Baltimore: International Youth Foundation.
Vance, F. (2010). A Comparative Analysis of Competency Frameworks for Youth Workers in the Out-of-School Time Field. Child and Youth Forum, 39 (6), 421-441.
Keller, T. E. (2007). Program staff in youth mentoring programs: Qualifications, training, and retention. In Jean Rhodes (Ed.), Research in Action. Alexandria, VA: MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership.
Lobley, J. & Ouellette, K. L. (2013). Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy—A Professional development opportunity for out-of-school-time providers. Journal of Extension, 51 (3), Article # 3TOT6.
Borden, L. (2002). Education youth development professionals, future potential (pp. 1-12). Tucson: Institute for Children, Youth, & Families, University of Arizona.
Bednar, S. G. (2003). Elements of Satisfying Organizational Climates in Child Welfare Agencies. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 83 (1).
Light, G. (2003). Realizing academic development: A model for embedding research practice in the practice of teaching. In H. Eggins & R. Macdonald (Eds), The scholarship of academic development. Buckingam, UK: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
Astroth, K. A., Garza, P., & Taylor, B. (2004). Getting down to Business: Defining competencies for entry-level youth workers. New directions for youth development, 104, 25-37.
Thomas, D. C. (2002). The North American certification project in historical perspective. Journal of Child and Youth Care Work, 17, 7–15.
Walker, J. (2003). The essential youth worker. In F. A. Villarruel, D. F. Perkins, L. M. Borden, & J. G. Keith (Eds.), Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices (pp. 373–393). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hartje, J. A., Evan, W. P., Killian, E. S., & Brown, R. (2008). Youth worker characteristics and self-reported competency as predictors of intent to continue working with youth. Child Youth Care Forum, 37, 27–41.
Grossman, J. B., Price, M., Fellerath, V., Jucovy, L., Kotloff, J., Raley, R., & Walker, K. (2002). Multiple choices after school: Findings from the Extended-Service School Initiative. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
Rosenthal, R., Vandell, D. (1996). Quality of care at school-aged child-care programs: Regulatable features, observed experiences, child perspectives, and parent perspectives. Child Development, 67, 2434–2445.
Camino, L. (2005). Pitfalls and promising practices of youth-adult partnerships: An evaluator’s reflections. Journal of Community Psychology, 33 (1), 75–85.
Stone, B. & Rennekamp, R. (2004). New foundations for the 4-H youth development profession: 4-H professional research, knowledge, and competencies study. Conducted in cooperation with the National 4-H Professional Development Task Force. Chevy Chase, MD: National 4-H Headquarters, CSREES, USDA.
Starr, E., Yohalem, N., & Gannett, E. (2009). Youth work core competencies: A review of existing frameworks (commissioned by School’s Out Washington). Seattle: Next Generation Youth Work Coalition.
Diem, K. G. (2009). Preparing Youth Development Professionals to Be Successful: How Do the Needs of Extension/4-H Compare to Those of Other Organizations? Journal of Extension, 47 (1).
The National Collaborative on Workforce and Disabilities (NCWD) for Youth. (2011). Core Competencies for Youth Service Professionals: Guiding Youth Toward Employment. InfoBrief, 30. Retrieved from: http://www.ncwd-youth.info/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Core-Competencies-for-YSP-Guiding-Youth-Toward-Employ.pdf.
Fordney, S. J., & Jones, R. M. (1990). Training teachers for substance abuse prevention. In Watson, R. R. (Ed.), Drug and alcohol abuse prevention (pp. 363-372). Totowa, NJ, US: Humana Press.
Sinclair, C., Dowson, M., & McInerney, D. M. (2006). Motivations to Teach: Psychometric Perspectives Across the First Semester of Teacher Education. Teachers College Record, 108 (6), 1132-1154.
Shek, D. & Wai, C. (2008). Training workers implementing adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs: What have we learned from the literature? Adolescence, 43, 823-45.
Kealey, K. A., Peterson, A. V., Gaul, M. A., Dinh, K. T. (2000). Teacher Training as a Behavior Change Process: Principles and Results from a Longitudinal Study. Health Education & Behavior, 27 (1): 64-81.
Stein, M. K. & Wang, M. C. (1988). Teacher development and school improvement: the process of teacher change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4 (2), 171-187.
Turner, K. M. T., Nicholson, J. M., & Sanders, M. R. (2011). The Role of Practitioner Self-Efficacy, Training, Program and Workplace Factors on the Implementation of an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention in Primary Care. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 32 (2), 95–112.
Herzog, R. J. (2004). Teaching What You Practice: The Need for Self-Reflection in Academic Settings. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 10 (3), 225-232, DOI: 10.1080/15236803.2004.12001361.
Larrivee, B. (2000). Transforming teaching practice: becoming the critically reflective teacher, Reflective Practice, 1 (3), 293-307.
Orpinas, P., & Horne, A. M. (2004). A teacher-focused approach to prevent and reduce students' aggressive behavior: The GREAT Teacher Program. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26 (1), 29-38.
Robertson, R. J. (1997). Walking the talk: Organizational Modeling and Commitment to Youth and Staff Development. Child Welfare, 76 (5), 577.
Garst, B. A., Baughman, S., & Franz, N. K. (2013). Benchmarking Professional Development Practices across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications for Extension. Journal of Extension, 52 (5).
Bonk, C. J., & Smith, G. S. (1998). Alternative instructional strategies for creative and critical thinking in the accounting curriculum. Journal of Accounting Education, 16 (2), 261-293.
National Collaboration for Youth. (2004). Youth development worker competencies. Retrieved from http://www.nydic.org/nydic/staffing/profdevelopment.htm.
Dennehy, J., Gannett, E., & Robbins, R. (2006). Setting the stage for a youth development associate credential: A national review of professional development credentials for the out-of-school time workforce. Wellesley, MA: National Institute on Out-of-School Time.
Center for School and Community Services, Academy for Educational Development. (2002). BEST strengthens youth worker practice: An evaluation of building exemplary systems for training youth workers. New York: Author. Retrieved from scs.aed.org/publications/best.pdf.
Freeman, J., Dorph, R., & Chi, B. (2009). Strengthening after-school STEM staff development. A study commissioned by the Coalition for Science Afterschool, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley, California.
Kysh, L. (2013): Difference between a systematic review and a literature review. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.766364.v1).
Bohnert, A., Fredricks, J., & Randall, E. (2010). Capturing unique dimensions of youth organized activity involvement: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Review of Educational Research Season, 20 (10).
Lerner, R. M., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., & Lerner, J. V. (2005).) Positive youth development: A view of the Issues. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25 (1), 10-16.
Rorie, M., Gottfredson, D. C., Cross, A., Wilson, D., Connell, N. M. (2010). Structure and deviancy training in after-school programs. Journal of Adolescence 34 (2011), 105–117.
Walker, K. C., & Larson, R. W. (2006). Balancing the professional and the personal. In D. A. Blyth & J. A. Walker (Eds.), New directions for youth development: Exceptional learning experiences for the middle years: Where high quality programs meet basic youth needs. no. 112 (pp. 109–118). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Almquist, P., Brekke, B., Croymans, S. R., Fruechte, K., Matlack, M., McAndrews, B., … Zurcher, T. (2016). Keys to Quality Youth Development. Retrieved from www.extension.umn.edu.
McLaughlin, M. (2000). Community counts: How youth organizations matter for youth development. Washington, DC: Public Education Network.
Fagan, A. A.; Hanson, K., Hawkins, J. D., Arthur, M. W. (2008). Implementing effective community-based prevention programs in the community youth development study. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6 (3), 256-278.
Carroll, C., Patterson, M., Wood, S., Booth, A., Rick, J., & Balain, S. (2007). A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity. Implementation Science, 2, Article 40.
Brophy, J. (1985). Classroom management as instruction: Socializing self-guidance in students. Theory Into Practice. Teaching Self-Discipline, 24 (4), 233-240.
Rogers, P. J. (2000). Program theory: Not whether programs work but how they work. In D. L. Stufflebeam, G. F. Madaus, & T. Kellaghan (Eds.), Evaluation models (pp. 209-232). Boston: Kluwer Academic.
Weiss, C. H. (2000). Which links in which theories shall we evaluate? In P. J. Rogers, T. A. Hacsi, A. Petrosino, & T. A. Huebner (Eds.), Program theory In evaluation: Challenges and opportunities (pp. 35-45). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Arnold, M. E. & Cater, M. (2016). Program Theory and Quality Matter: Changing the Course of Extension Program Evaluation. Journal of Extension, 54 (1).
Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: Implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18 (2), 237–256.
Mihalic, S., Fagan, A., & Argamaso, S. (2008). Implementing the life skills training drug prevention program: Factors related to implementation fidelity. Implementation Science, 3, Article 5.
Mihalic, S. (2002). The importance of implementation fidelity. Unpublished manuscript.
Chen, H. (1990). Issues in constructing program theory. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 47, 7–18.
Lipsey, M. W. (1990). Design sensitivity. Newbury park, Ca: Sage.
Kaftarian, S., Robertson, E., Compton, W., Davis, Beverly W., & Volkow, N. (2004). Blending Prevention Research and Practice in Schools: Critical Issues and Suggestions. Prevention Science, 5 (1), 1–3.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327–350.
Gutman, L. M. & Eccles, J. S. (2007). Stage–Environment Fit During Adolescence: Trajectories of Family Relations and Adolescent Outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 44 (2), 522-537.
Meyer, D. C., Durlak, J. A. & Wandersman, A. (2012). The quality implementation framework: a synthesis of critical steps in the implementation process. American Journal of Psychology, 50 (3-4): 462-80.
Rosenbaum, D. P. (1986). Community crime prevention: Does it work? Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Castro, F. G., Barrera, M., & Martinez, C. R., Jr. (2004). The cultural adaptation of prevention interventions: Resolving tensions between fidelity and fit. Prevention Science, 5 (1), 41–45.
McGraw, S. A., Sellers, D. E., Stone, E. J., Bebchuk, J., Edmundson, E. W., Johnson, C. C., et al. (1996). Using process evaluation to explain outcomes: An illustration from the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health (CATCH). Evaluation Review, 20 (3), 291-312.
Berkel, C., Mauricio, A. M., Schoenfelder, E., & Sandler, I. N. (2011). Putting the pieces together: An integrated model of program implementation. Prevention Science, 12 (1), 23–33.
Granger, R. C. (2010). Understanding and Improving the Effectiveness of After-School Practice. Am J Community Psychol, 45, 441–446.
Gilman, R. (2001). The relationship between life satisfaction, social interest, and frequency of extracurricular activities among adolescent student. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 749–767.
Blum, R. W. (2003). Positive youth development: A strategy for improving health. In F. Jacobs, D. Wertlieb, & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Eds.), Enhancing the life chances of youth and families: Public service systems and public policy perspectives: Vol. 2. Handbook of applied developmental science: Promoting positive child, adolescent, and family development through research, policies, and programs (pp. 237-252). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Henderson, K. A., Bialeschki, M. D., Scanlin, M. M., Thurber, C., Whitaker, L. S., & Marsh, P. E. (2007). Components of camp experiences for positive youth development. Journal of Youth Development, 1 (3).
Roth, J. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). What exactly is a youth development program? Answers from research and practice. Journal of Applied Development Science, 7, 94-111.
Hellison, D. R. & Cutforth, N. J. (1997). Extended day programs for urban children and youth: from theory to practice, in: H. Walberg, O. Reyes & R. Weissberg (Eds) Children and youth: interdisciplinary perspectives (San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass), 223–249.
Powell, D. E. (2003, summer). Demystifying alternative education: Considering what really works. Reclaiming children and youth; The Journal of Strength-based Interventions, 12 (2), 68-70.
Mahoney, J., Larson, R., Eccles, J., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as development contexts for children and adolescents. In J. Mahoney, R. Larson, & J. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 3–22). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Guerra, N. G., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2008). Linking the prevention of problem behaviors and positive youth development: Core competencies for positive youth development and risk prevention. In N. G. Guerra & C. P. Bradshaw (Eds.), Core competencies to prevent problem behaviors and promote positive youth development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 122, 1–17.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research Perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22 (6), 723-742.
The McArthur Foundation (2005). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st century. South Dearborn St, Chicago, Illinois 60603.
New London Group (2000). “A Pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures,” in multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures, ed. B. Cope & M. Kalantzis for the New London Group. London: Routledge, pp. 9-38.
Foucault, M. (1970). The order of things: An archaeology of the human sciences. London: Tavistock.
Connell, J. P., Gambone, M. A., and Smith, T. (2000). Youth development in community settings. In Public/Private Ventures (Ed.), Youth development: Issues, challenges and directions. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
Browse journals by subject